Ideally, sexually transmitted infections STIs should have been studied as well, but due to the decreased sensitivity and specificity of DBS technique in determining STIs syphilis, for example , it was decided not to include STIs. For the purposes of this study, any female who undertook sexual activity with a man in return for money or other financial benefits irrespective of the site of operation i. Service delivery programmes for all sub-categories of FSWs promoting condom use as well as Voluntary Counselling and Testing VCT should be on ground in these three cities. The methodology provides size estimates of each of the populations. While in the brothel, one room was hired and selected FSWs came there for the interview and blood sampling. While every effort was made to ensure that the respondents belonged to the high-risk group in question and female study coordinators frequently checked the quality of interviewers, interviewer and recall bias cannot be ruled out. If, after deliberations, the hearing panel determines that the information contained in the Final Investigative Report and gathered during the hearing, does not support by a preponderance of the evidence more likely than not that the respondent is responsible for a violation of the Sexual Misconduct Policy and the Student Code, the hearing panel will notify both the respondent and the complainant by means of a written notice. However, that will obviously depend on the resources available.
In smaller cities, all spots identified in L1 were visited, whereas in larger metropolitans, at least half of the spots were visited. It is usually associated with an identifier. In addition, the methodology identifies various locales locations and spots - where and when high-risk activity takes place - and prepares a detailed profile of these locations. Once the participants agreed, they signed on the consent form along with date and time. The interviewers had received training in DBS collection and universal precautions. An effective programme should have a modest number of outreach workers. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur between August and January In Karachi and Hyderabad, there still exists red light areas with functioning brothels. Informed consent was also obtained from the study participants before the collection of behavioural and biological data by trained interviewers. In case she was not available or refused, which was negligible, the next spot in the list was used for recruiting purposes. Following this survey, another round was conducted in among all risk groups, including FSWs. No previous research among FSWs has been conducted in this pattern covering three key cities of a province at a time. Local experts suggest that the clientele of sex workers in Pakistan is still a small group of males which has not yet acquired HIV even if some of them may be bisexual. AIDS ; 19 Suppl 2: AIDS ; 21 Suppl 8: The prevention methods probed included condom use during sex, avoiding sex, that proper use of condoms can prevent HIV transmission, use of new syringe for injection and blood transfusion of screened blood only. Well-organised intervention programmes with good outreach workers do result in improved safe practices. The validation process of kothikhana-based and home-based FSWs followed a slightly different methodology. The findings of the behavioural and biological survey have been used as baseline by programmes providing services to FSWs in Sindh. There are small-scale cottage industries as well. Practically, it involved field teams going out in various zones and gathering information from secondary and tertiary key informants. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Kothi-khanas were often in residential areas and were largely clandestine. Review of sampling hard-to-reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance. While every effort was made to ensure that the respondents belonged to the high-risk group in question and female study coordinators frequently checked the quality of interviewers, interviewer and recall bias cannot be ruled out.
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