Proudhon's followers, the mutualists , opposed Marx's state socialism , advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings. As for the reforms initiated by the Commune, such as the re-opening of workplaces as co-operatives, anarchists can see their ideas of associated labour beginning to be realised. A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and syndicalism or trade unionism. Malatesta warned that the syndicalists aims were in perpetuating syndicalism itself, whereas anarchists must always have anarchy as their end and consequently refrain from committing to any particular method of achieving it. Thus only a tiny minority of anarchists was present, and the General Council's resolutions passed almost unanimously. Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organisation. Anarcho-syndicalism , International Workers' Association , Anarchism in Spain , and Spanish Revolution of The anti-authoritarian sections of the First International were the precursors of the anarcho-syndicalists , seeking to "replace the privilege and authority of the State" with the "free and spontaneous organization of labour". Most of them were clearly directed against Bakunin and his followers".
Subsequently, the International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads. A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and syndicalism or trade unionism. Four of the men were executed and a fifth committed suicide prior to his own execution. Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organisation. Various themes were treated during the Congress, in particular concerning the organisation of the anarchist movement, popular education issues, the general strike or antimilitarism. Although he did not accord the state with moral legitimacy, he was against the use of revolutionary tactics for removing the government from power. He thought that the spread of the use of reason to the masses would eventually cause government to wither away as an unnecessary force. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists , opposed Marx's state socialism , advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings. The event also had the secondary purpose of memorialising workers killed as a result of the Haymarket affair. Propaganda of the deed , Illegalism , and Expropriative anarchism Italian American anarchist Luigi Galleani whose followers, known as Galleanists, carried out a series of bombings and assassination attempts from to in what they saw as attacks on "tyrants" and "enemies of the people" Some anarchists, such as Johann Most , advocated publicising violent acts of retaliation against counter-revolutionaries because "we preach not only action in and for itself, but also action as propaganda". Therefore, massacres of the enemies of the people must be set in motion". Before the s, the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics, attracting 1. Malatesta and Monatte were in particular disagreement themselves on this issue as the latter thought that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions of a social revolution while Malatesta did not consider syndicalism by itself sufficient. In , a second attempt—this time international in scope—to organise for the eight-hour day was made. A great brigand becomes a ruler of a Nation". The incident became known as the Haymarket affair and was a setback for the labour movement and the struggle for the eight-hour day. The French Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is regarded as the first self-proclaimed anarchist, a label he adopted in his groundbreaking work What is Property? However, Proudhon later added that "Property is Liberty" and argued that it was a bulwark against state power. Rather, he advocated for its replacement through a process of peaceful evolution. International Workingmen's Association and Paris Commune Anarchist Mikhail Bakunin opposed the Marxist aim of dictatorship of the proletariat in favour of universal rebellion and allied himself with the federalists in the First International before his expulsion by the Marxists  In Europe, harsh reaction followed the revolutions of , during which ten countries had experienced brief or long-term social upheaval as groups carried out nationalist uprisings. The Commune's vision of a communal France based on a federation of delegates bound by imperative mandates issued by their electors and subject to recall at any moment echoes Bakunin's and Proudhon's ideas Proudhon, like Bakunin, had argued in favour of the "implementation of the binding mandate" in and for federation of communes , thus both economically and politically the Paris Commune was heavily influenced by anarchist ideas. His famous quote on the matter is "Liberty is the mother, not the daughter, of order". Thus only a tiny minority of anarchists was present, and the General Council's resolutions passed almost unanimously. He argued in Political Justice   that government has an inherently malevolent influence on society and that it perpetuates dependency and ignorance. Moreover, the Commune's ideas on federation obviously reflected the influence of Proudhon on French radical ideas. Malatesta warned that the syndicalists aims were in perpetuating syndicalism itself, whereas anarchists must always have anarchy as their end and consequently refrain from committing to any particular method of achieving it. After most of these attempts at systematic change ended in failure, conservative elements took advantage of the divided groups of socialists , liberals and nationalists along with anarchists to prevent further revolt.
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