That year the city of Schenectady had a total population of , which included free blacks, 47 slaves, and 91 foreigners. From the early days of interaction, early Dutch traders in the valley had unions with Mohawk women, if not always official marriages. The settlers here turned to farming. The Crown granted them land in what became known as Upper Canada and later Ontario. The city reached its peak of population in
The easternmost one was Ossernenon, located about 9 miles west of present-day Auriesville, New York. Jacques and Hilletie Van Slyck each received portions of land in the Mohawk deed for Schenectady. About acres of this unique ecosystem are now protected as the Albany Pine Bush. He also started a school for students of color. This business became a major industrial and economic force and helped establish the city and region as a national manufacturing center. The last slaves in New York and this city gained freedom in , under the state's gradual abolition law. Industrial jobs attracted many new immigrants, first from Ireland, and later in the century from Italy and Poland. Wright , an African-American minister based in New York City, spoke at the dedication of the church and praised the school. American Locomotive Company also developed here, from a Schenectady company, and merging several smaller companies in ; it was second in the United States in the manufacture of steam locomotives before developing diesel technology. This founding was part of the expansion of higher education in upstate New York in the postwar years. During this period, migrants poured into upstate and western New York from New England, but there were also new immigrants from England and Europe. In the postwar period after World War II, some residents moved to newer housing in suburban locations outside the city. The abolitionist Theodore S. Their children were raised within the Mohawk community, which had a matrilineal kinship system, considering children born into the mother's clan. In the 19th century, after completion of the Erie Canal in , Schenectady became an important transportation, manufacturing and trade center. From the early days of interaction, early Dutch traders in the valley had unions with Mohawk women, if not always official marriages. They also gained land in the Schenectady settlement. The English also imported slaves and continued with agriculture in the river valley. The school had started in as Schenectady Academy. Freedom seekers were supported via the Underground Railroad route that ran through the area, passing to the west and north to Canada, which had abolished slavery. Some mixed-race descendants, such as Jacques Cornelissen Van Slyck and his sister Hilletie van Olinda , who were of Dutch, French and Mohawk ancestry, became interpreters and intermarried with Dutch colonists. As most early colonists were from the Fort Orange area, they may have anticipated working as fur traders, but the Beverwijck later Albany traders kept a monopoly of legal control. Many traveled west along the Mohawk River, settling in the western part of the state, where they developed more agriculture on former Iroquois lands. The Great Depression caused a loss of jobs and population after that. In , Schenectady was incorporated as a borough.
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