Premenopausal women, pregnant women during labor, and postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy develop reversible gastrointestinal complications including delayed gastric emptying for both solids and liquids compared with age-matched men 3 , 4 , Similarly, blood glucose levels were also obtained from overnight fasting male and female diabetic as well as control rats at the time the experiment was performed 12 wk after STZ. Control groups were injected with the vehicle only. Blood glucose levels from overnight fasting animals were obtained 48 h after STZ to confirm that diabetes was induced in treated animals. The importance of dimerization for the catalytic activity of endothelial NOS and its disruption in diabetes has been reported by several independent investigators 13 , In this study we tested the hypothesis that a component of this effect may be mediated by the nitrergic inhibitory system of the enteric nervous system. However, the biological basis of this sex bias remains completely unknown.
NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase, producing an increase in the intracellular cGMP leading to muscle relaxation 14 , Similar changes have also been shown in obese and streptozotocin STZ -induced diabetic mice and rats 21 , The final sampling rate was 10 Hz 10 , Symptoms of diabetic gastropathy can range from mild dyspepsia to recurrent vomiting and abdominal pain and are often associated with delayed or accelerated gastric emptying. Data were transmitted by telemetry RLA telemetry receivers, Data Sciences , multiplexed BCM consolidation matrix, Data Sciences , and sent to an adapter where the signal was then demultiplexed, sampled at 1, Hz, and converted to analog UA universal adapter, Data Sciences. Animals were allowed free access to water and rodent chow. Tension was increased progressively, and contractile responses to potassium chloride 60 mM were analyzed in Krebs bicarbonate solution measured in various resting conditions 45 , Thus gastric antroduodenal motility is slower even in healthy women, perhaps owing to hormonal influence 2. Gastric motility is regulated in large part by neurons of the enteric nervous system located in the muscle wall Louis, MO prepared in 5 mM citrate buffer vehicle , pH 4. Enzymatic uncoupling of NOS due to lack of BH4 may in part account for reduced NO production and increased oxidative stress factors such as superoxide 26 , Pressure recordings were performed at least 2—3 h between 9: Food and water were then removed, and the gastric emptying rate of the ingested meal was assessed 4 h later. However, diabetic females exhibited significant delayed GE than in diabetic males. Groups of healthy and diabetic rats from both sexes were fasted for 20—24 h. It is not clear, however, whether this phenomenon suggests a unique biological vulnerability in females or simply an exaggeration of preexisting differences in gastric motility. Such a sex bias is also seen in the idiopathic variety of gastric dysfunction, reinforcing the concept of women being more susceptible to this condition. At the end of each experimental protocol, the muscle strip was removed, blotted dry with filter paper, and weighed. Although delayed or accelerated gastric emptying has long been taken as a hallmark of diabetes, in recent reports most experts concur that this correlates poorly if at all with clinical symptoms 37 , Compared with male controls, gastric nNOS expression and nitrergic relaxation were substantially elevated in healthy female control rats, accompanied by significantly reduced intragastric pressure. A known amount of solid meal with free access to water was supplied for a 3-h period. However, the biological basis of this sex bias remains completely unknown. The gastric emptying rate of a solid meal was measured as reported previously This output was band-pass filtered and amplified. Solid gastric emptying GE studies were performed in all the groups. Premenopausal women, pregnant women during labor, and postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy develop reversible gastrointestinal complications including delayed gastric emptying for both solids and liquids compared with age-matched men 3 , 4 , All drugs used in this study were purchased from Sigma Chemical.
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