In some studies, high levels of plasma oxytocin have been correlated with romantic attachment. Fear and anxiety[ edit ] Oxytocin is typically remembered for the effect it has on prosocial behaviors , such as its role in facilitating trust and attachment between individuals. Further, oxytocin was correlated with participant desire to protect vulnerable in-group members, despite that individual's attachment to the conflict. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experiment explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants into which role they would be placed. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal.
These cells generate action potentials that propagate down axons to the nerve endings in the pituitary; the endings contain large numbers of oxytocin-containing vesicles, which are released by exocytosis when the nerve terminals are depolarised. Oxytocin has also been implicated in lying when lying would prove beneficial to other in-group members. Its actions are mediated by specific, oxytocin receptors. Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis and immune system , can impact development of dependence. In a study, both humans and dog oxytocin levels in the blood rose after five to 24 minutes of a petting session. For example, if a couple is separated for a long period of time, anxiety can increase due to the lack of physical affection. In comparison to other cooperative activities between chimpanzees that were monitored including grooming, food sharing generated higher levels of oxytocin. However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition are normal. Female rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires magnesium and cholesterol. Secretion of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve endings is regulated by the electrical activity of the oxytocin cells in the hypothalamus. Subjects who were told they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk aversion. Rats that are genetically modified to have a surplus of oxytocin receptors display a greater fear response to a previously conditioned stressor. Oxytocin can increase positive attitudes, such as bonding, toward individuals with similar characteristics, who then become classified as "in-group" members, whereas individuals who are dissimilar become classified as "out-group" members. Oxytocin is not only correlated with the preferences of individuals to associate with members of their own group, but it is also evident during conflicts between members of different groups. In some studies, high levels of plasma oxytocin have been correlated with romantic attachment. Females who are administered oxytocin are overall faster in responding to socially relevant stimuli than males who received oxytocin. The status of the endogenous oxytocin system might enhance or reduce susceptibility to addiction through its interaction with these systems. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. This comparatively higher level of oxytocin after food sharing parallels the increased level of oxytocin in nursing mothers, sharing nutrients with their kin. Further, oxytocin influences the responses of individuals in a particular group to those of another group. The two genes are believed to result from a gene duplication event; the ancestral gene is estimated to be about million years old and is found in cyclostomata modern members of the Agnatha. Male[ edit ] The Leydig cells in some species have been shown to possess the biosynthetic machinery to manufacture testicular oxytocin de novo, to be specific, in rats which can synthesize vitamin C endogenously , and in guinea pigs, which, like humans, require an exogenous source of vitamin C ascorbate in their diets. There is consensus that oxytocin modulates fear and anxiety ; that is, it does not directly elicit fear or anxiety. This silences the fetal brain for the period of delivery and reduces its vulnerability to hypoxic damage. In a study where such a relationship was examined, it was found that when individuals were administered oxytocin, rates of dishonesty in the participants' responses increased for their in-group members when a beneficial outcome for their group was expected. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experiment explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants into which role they would be placed.
Video about oxytocin in males:
Love-Bonding Sexual Hormone: Oxytocin
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