The Code of Hammurabi states that he loses his right to do so if the wife herself gives him a slave as concubine. The United Nations is thus working through the Convention and CEDAW to promote women's equality by making monogamy the only legal form of marriage worldwide. In the patriarchal society of Mesopotamia the nuclear family was called a "house". The wisdom books e. Jesus avoids entangling himself in juridical or casuistic controversies; instead, he appeals twice to the "beginning".
Polyandrous men face paternity uncertainty—they are rather uncertain about which children are theirs—and must compete for their mate's limited reproductive capacities gestation, lactation, etc. In the most complex societies high-end states [ 30 ] , where a society's competitive success is influenced by its economic output, standing armies, innovation rates, trade, division of labour and offspring quality, higher rates of polygynous marriage reduce a society's competitive success. Roland de Vaux states that "it is clear that the most common form of marriage in Israel was monogamy". Abstract The anthropological record indicates that approximately 85 per cent of human societies have permitted men to have more than one wife polygynous marriage , and both empirical and evolutionary considerations suggest that large absolute differences in wealth should favour more polygynous marriages. This means norms become internalized such that norm adherence is intrinsically rewarding [ 16 ]. A range of 1. These findings support the claim[ further explanation needed ] that the reported amount of extramarital sex differs across cultures and across genders. Introduction Approximately 85 per cent of societies in the anthropological record permit men to marry multiple wives [ 1 ]. The value of 1. Polygynous pair-bonding is more acceptable to women than is polyandrous pair-bonding to men. The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq suggests that it is wrong to abandon a wife because of her barrenness. People in some cultures are more sexually monogamous than people in other cultures. The idea is that competition among communities—such as nations, polities or religious organizations—favours those norms, values, beliefs, practices and institutions that most effectively harness, reinforce and shape our motivations and behaviour in ways that generate success in inter-group competition. Socially imposed monogamy covers situations in which norms or laws regulate spousal number along with inheritance and divorce rights , including circumstances in which a noble class forcibly imposes monogamous marriage on commoners while retaining polygyny for themselves see the electronic supplementary material. Meanwhile, polyandrous marriage is relatively rare, often involves brothers marrying the same wife, and is frequently intermixed with polygynous marriages within the same population see the electronic supplementary material. Marriage systems found throughout the anthropological record reflect and amplify aspects of our mating psychology. Being married comes with economic, social and sexual expectations, prescriptions and prohibitions for both parties, who are accordingly evaluated—formally or informally—by their community. After marriage they shall never seek any sexual or romantic relationship with anyone else, ever, and all resources must be devoted to the good of the household. Marriage norms are certainly not independent of our mating psychology, nor can they entirely subvert it. In particular, the customs and laws regulating divorce e. In other cases, the available evidence provides only qualified support, basic consistency or prima-facie plausibility. The instruction texts belonging to wisdom literature, e. Like many mammals, human females invest more heavily in their offspring than males. Inter-group competition need not result in violent conflict as such processes can produce a differential diffusion of beliefs, norms and institutions from more successful to less successful societies [ 8 , 9 ]. In closing, we i contrast the conditions favourable to the spread of monogamous versus polygynous marriage, ii consider alternative hypotheses for the spread of monogamous marriage, and iii speculate on how marriage systems might be linked to the rise of democratic institutions and industrial economic growth.
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