Louis the Pious died in , with the empire still in chaos. The replacement of goods from long-range trade with local products was a trend throughout the old Roman lands that happened in the Early Middle Ages. Under such monks as Columba d. Gold continued to be minted until the end of the 7th century, when it was replaced by silver coins. Later members of his family inherited the office, acting as advisers and regents.
Carolingian Renaissance Charlemagne's court in Aachen was the centre of the cultural revival sometimes referred to as the " Carolingian Renaissance ". Charles the Bald received the western Frankish lands, comprising most of modern-day France. Around the Mediterranean, pottery remained prevalent and appears to have been traded over medium-range networks, not just produced locally. Most of the people were peasants settled on small farms. Literacy increased, as did development in the arts, architecture and jurisprudence, as well as liturgical and scriptural studies. The replacement of goods from long-range trade with local products was a trend throughout the old Roman lands that happened in the Early Middle Ages. Most European monasteries were of the type that focuses on community experience of the spiritual life, called cenobitism , which was pioneered by Pachomius d. Charles, more often known as Charles the Great or Charlemagne , embarked upon a programme of systematic expansion in that unified a large portion of Europe, eventually controlling modern-day France, northern Italy, and Saxony. Louis's reign of 26 years was marked by numerous divisions of the empire among his sons and, after , civil wars between various alliances of father and sons over the control of various parts of the empire. Louis the German was in control of Bavaria and the eastern lands in modern-day Germany. The register, or archived copies of the letters, of Pope Gregory the Great pope — survived, and of those more than letters, the vast majority were concerned with affairs in Italy or Constantinople. Lothair took East Francia , comprising both banks of the Rhine and eastwards, leaving Charles West Francia with the empire to the west of the Rhineland and the Alps. No silver coins denominated in multiple units were minted. Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — Religious beliefs in the Eastern Empire and Iran were in flux during the late sixth and early seventh centuries. Pepin II of Aquitaine d. When Carloman died of natural causes, Charles blocked the succession of Carloman's young son and installed himself as the king of the united Austrasia and Neustria. The 7th century was a tumultuous period of wars between Austrasia and Neustria. Franks traded timber, furs, swords and slaves in return for silks and other fabrics, spices, and precious metals from the Arabs. Non-local goods appearing in the archaeological record are usually luxury goods. By the Treaty of Verdun , a kingdom between the Rhine and Rhone rivers was created for Lothair to go with his lands in Italy, and his imperial title was recognised. The English monk Alcuin d. African goods stopped being imported into Europe, first disappearing from the interior and by the 7th century found only in a few cities such as Rome or Naples. By the end of the 7th century, under the impact of the Muslim conquests, African products were no longer found in Western Europe. Many of the popes prior to were more concerned with Byzantine affairs and Eastern theological controversies. Charlemagne sponsored changes in church liturgy , imposing the Roman form of church service on his domains, as well as the Gregorian chant in liturgical music for the churches.
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5-4 Popes and Kings in the Middle Ages
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