In a radio station broadcast allegations linking the plaintiff to the murder. It was obvious that the inspector had personally reached this decision after careful and anxious thought and with the guidance of superiors and advisors. However, Lord Devlin laid down the test of reasonable suspicion as: In so holding, the court took the opportunity to formulate a six-point proposition of the law based on existing precedents. The action does not, like malicious prosecution, depend on the proceedings being completed, concluded or withdrawn before it can be instituted.
The necessary deduction, which the courts have for centuries made from that definition, is that there has to be a finding as to the subjective state of mind of the prosecutor as well as an objective consideration of the adequacy of the evidence available to him or her. And since no offence of sedition had been committed, it could hardly be said that the arresting officer reasonably suspected the first appellant of committing sedition. In the circumstances where evidence had been fabricated, it became obvious that the officers had maintained the prosecution maliciously and without reasonable and probable cause. In malicious prosecution the burden of proof is on the plaintiff, who must show that all four elements developed by the courts over the years are present. Instead, the issue was if the plaintiff had proved that the prosecutor did not honestly form the view that there was a proper case for prosecution, or had proved that the prosecutor formed that view on an insufficient basis. That is the assertion which may, we do not say must, depend upon evidence demonstrating that further inquiry should have been made. Addressing these issues in Abrath 81 Bowen LJ said: Such a motive must involve an abuse or perversion of the system of criminal justice for ends it was not designed to serve and as such incorporates an abuse of the office of the Attorney General and his agents the Crown Attorneys. The court further found that the police, in particular, Detective Constable Ryder, had no sufficient basis for any honest belief in the case she instituted and then maintained. The finding that there was reasonable and probable cause to prosecute invariably neutralises the existence of malice in the circumstances as the latter is contingent on the former. If the facts of a particular case are such that the prosecutor may be supposed to know where the truth lies, the relevant state of persuasion will necessarily entail a conclusion, a belief of the prosecutor, about guilt. It was his honest opinion that charges should be laid as they were. If the materials were admittedly untrustworthy, that would be a strong reason for throwing on the defendants the burden of showing that they, nevertheless, had been misled, after all their care, into relying upon worthless materials. It is therefore not sufficient for the plaintiff to show that he was innocent of conspiracy and that there was no substantial ground for charging him with conspiracy. He could not rely on it by simply taking it at face value without having regard to factors which affected its cogency — obviously the tenuous credibility of Lynette Crimmins who was the only person who said that Noye had been promised or given money; but what he was required to do was to decide if, in his own view and on an objective basis, the evidence warranted putting the plaintiff on trial for the charges proposed and, in doing so, to act honestly for the purposes of bringing a wrongdoer to justice. Even if at trial of the offence it would be expected that some form of corroboration warning be given to the jury, the question of absence of reasonable and probable cause is not to be decided according to such a rule. Fourthly, in cases of abuse of process, it was irrelevant whether or not there was reasonable or probable cause for the proceedings or in whose favour they ended, or whether they had ended at all. There was therefore no reason to support the decision to arrest, nor was there any rational connection between the detention of the appellant and the purpose the arresting officer ought to have set out to achieve. According to the court, to ask only whether there was material available to the prosecutor which, assessed objectively, would have warranted commencement or maintenance of the prosecution would deny relief to the person acquitted of a crime prosecuted by a person who not only acted maliciously but who is also shown to have acted without forming the view that the material warranted prosecution of the offences. She knew from 31 July after the witnesses failed to identify the plaintiff as the perpetrator of the offence in a photo array which included the photograph of the plaintiff, that the case lacked reasonable and probable cause. In a radio station broadcast allegations linking the plaintiff to the murder. The plaintiff brought an action in defamation against the radio station, a journalist, and a retired police officer. It was an unreasonable interference with his liberty and fundamental dignity. It is widely accepted that reasonable and probable cause means an honest belief founded on reasonable ground s that the institution of proceedings is justified. The possibility of escape, the prevention of further crime and the obstruction of police inquiries are examples of those factors with which all judges who have had to grant or refuse bail are familiar.
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